Lesson 10
Home Up (15) Lewis Diagrams (16) Molecular Shape and Polarity (17) Intermolecular Bonding

 

(17) Intermolecular Bonding

Obj. 17.  From the name of a molecular chemical determine the type of intermolecular bonding.

To do that you must first determine the shape and polarity of the molecule. If the molecule is nonpolar, it will have van der Waals intermolecular bonding. If the molecule is polar and does not have hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, it will have dipole-dipole intermolecular bonding. If the molecule is polar and does have hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, it will have hydrogen bonding between molecules.
Polarity Other Qualifications Intermolecular Bond Type
nonpolar   van der Waals
polar without H-NOF dipole-dipole
polar with H-NOF hydrogen

 

Exercises

For each of the following molecular compounds, determine the type of intermolecular bonding.

a. ammonia

b. carbon(II) oxide

c. carbon(IV) chloride

d. hydrogen chloride

e. sulfur dichloride

f. sulfur hexachloride

g. water

 

Worked-Out Examples (a,b)

(a) Ammonia is the first example. NH3 is its formula. As you figured out in exercise 16, it has polar molecules. It also has hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, so it has hydrogen bonding.

(b) Carbon(II) oxide has the formula CO. It is also called carbon monoxide. It is a linear molecule with a carbon atom at one end and an oxygen atom at the other end. Therefore it is a polar molecule and it has dipole-dipole intermolecular bonds.

 

Answers to Exercises

For each of the following molecular compounds, determine the type of intermolecular bonding.

a. ammonia has hydrogen bonding

b. carbon(II) oxide has dipole-dipole bonding

c. carbon(IV) chloride has van der Waals bonding

d. hydrogen chloride has dipole-dipole bonding

e. sulfur dichloride has dipole-dipole bonding

f. sulfur hexachloride has van der Waals bonding

g. water has hydrogen bonding

 

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