Neutralization
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Neutralization

It is possible to predict the products of acid-base neutralization reactions in the same way that you were able to predict the products of double-displacement precipitation reactions. Let's use the neutralization of stomach acid (HCl) by milk of magnesia (Mg(OH)2) as an example.

Mentally (or on paper) divide the acid into H+ ions and negative ions. Similarly, divide the base into positive ions and OH- ions. For products, combine the H+ and OH- ions to make H2O. Then combine the positive and negative ions to make an ionic compound (a salt) taking into account the charges on each ion. In this case, Mg2+ and Cl- make MgCl2. If the formula of the salt is correct, you should have no trouble balancing the equation.

Reactants Products
HCl + Mg(OH)2  
H+  Cl-  Mg2+   OH-  
  MgCl2 + H2O
2 HCl + Mg(OH)2 rtarrow.gif (850 bytes) MgCl2 + 2 H2O

Practice (Ex. 15)

Now try your hand at this by completing and balancing equations for these reactions (which are also shown in exercise 15 in your workbook). Check your answers below, then continue.

KOH + H2CO3 rtarrow.gif (850 bytes)

HBr + Al(OH)3 rtarrow.gif (850 bytes)

H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2 rtarrow.gif (850 bytes)

 

Answers (Ex. 15)

Here are the answers (to exercise 15). If you have trouble with any of these you should stop now and get help from your instructor.

2 KOH + H2CO3 rtarrow.gif (850 bytes) 2 H2O + K2CO3

3 HBr + Al(OH)3 rtarrow.gif (850 bytes) 3 H2O + AlBr3

2 H3PO4 + 3 Ca(OH)2 rtarrow.gif (850 bytes) 6 H2O +  Ca3(PO4)2

 

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